What Does the Munich Agreement Do

In the spring of 1938, Hitler openly began to support the demands of the German-speaking people of the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia for closer relations with Germany. Hitler had recently annexed Austria to Germany, and the conquest of Czechoslovakia was the next step in his plan to create a “Greater Germany.” The Czechoslovak government hoped that Britain and France would come to the rescue in the event of a German invasion, but British Prime Minister Chamberlain was anxious to avoid war. He made two trips to Germany in September and offered Hitler favorable deals, but the Führer continued to increase his demands. The “guarantees” of Germany and Italy will not “guarantee” Czechoslovak neutrality until the demands of Hungary and Poland are met – that is, their guarantee will not be given, if at all, until the division of Czechoslovakia progresses. It is to be feared that by then any guarantee, whether German and Italian or French and British, will have lost the meaning it might one day have. On September 30 at 11:45 p.m..m.m, 11 a.m., 11 a.m., after the Czechoslovak government agreed to the Munich terms, Poland issued an ultimatum to the Czechoslovak government. [78] He demanded the immediate evacuation of Czechoslovak troops and police and gave Prague until noon the next day. At 11:45 a.m.m .m 1. In October, the Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry called the Polish ambassador in Prague and told him that Poland could have anything it wanted, but then asked for a 24-hour delay. On October 2, the Polish Army under the command of General Władysław Bortnowski annexed an area of 801.5 km² with a population of 227,399 people. Administratively, the annexed area was divided between Frysztat County and Cieszyn County. [79] At the same time, Slovakia lost 10,390 km² to Hungary with 854,277 inhabitants. Later in the session, a pre-arranged deception was undertaken to influence and pressure Chamberlain: one of Hitler`s assistants entered the room to inform Hitler of the other Germans killed in Czechoslovakia, to which Hitler shouted in response: “I will avenge each of them.

The Czechs must be annihilated. [32] The meeting ended with Hitler`s refusal to make concessions to the Allies` demands. [32] Later that evening, Hitler worried that he had gone too far to put pressure on Chamberlain and called the suite of Chamberlain`s hotel and said he would agree to annex only the Sudetenland, with no plans for other areas, provided that Czechoslovakia began evacuating ethnic Czechs from the territories of the German majority by September 26 at 8:00 a.m. .m. After pressure from Chamberlain, Hitler agreed to set the ultimatum for October 1 (the same date on which Operation Green was to begin). [37] Hitler then told Chamberlain that this was a concession he was willing to give to the prime minister as a “gift,” out of respect for the fact that Chamberlain had been willing to give up his previous position somewhat. [37] Hitler went on to say that if the Sudetenland were annexed, Germany would no longer have territorial claims over Czechoslovakia and would conclude a collective agreement to guarantee the borders of Germany and Czechoslovakia. [37] In the meantime, the UK government has asked Beneš to seek a mediator. As Beneš did not want to sever his government`s ties with Western Europe, he reluctantly agreed. The Sudeten Germans were ordered by Hitler to avoid any compromise,[25] and the SdP organized demonstrations on September 7 that provoked a police action in Ostrava during which two of his deputies were arrested. [23] The Sudeten Germans used the incident and false accusations of other atrocities as a pretext to break off new negotiations.

[23] [26] The economic consequences of the Munich Agreement will inevitably be very serious for Czechoslovakia. The loss of industries, railway heads, knots, etc. can only lead to serious business losses and unemployment. There is also no doubt that Czechoslovakia will become an object of quasi-colonial exploitation for Germany. The Munich Accords (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; Munich Agreement) or Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded in Munich on September 30, 1938 by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. He granted Germany the “cession of the Sudeten German territory” from Czechoslovakia. [1] Most European countries celebrated the agreement because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland, a region in western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mostly German-speaking. Hitler proclaimed this was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement. On 29 and 30 September 1938, an emergency meeting of the main European powers is held in Munich – without Czechoslovakia or the Soviet Union, allied with France and Czechoslovakia. On Hitler`s terms, an agreement was quickly reached. It was signed by the leaders of Germany, France, Britain and Italy. Militarily, the Sudetenland was of strategic importance to Czechoslovakia, as most of its border defenses were located there to protect themselves from a German attack.

The agreement between the four powers was signed in the context of an undeclared german-Czechoslovak war of low intensity, which had begun on September 17, 1938. Meanwhile, after September 23, 1938, Poland moved its army units to its common border with Czechoslovakia. [2] Czechoslovakia yielded to diplomatic pressure from France and Britain and agreed on September 30 to cede territories to Germany on Munich terms. Fearing the possible loss of Zaolzie to Germany, Poland issued Zaolzie with an ultimatum with a majority of ethnic Poles that Germany had accepted in advance and that Czechoslovakia had accepted on 1 October. [3] After Poland learned that the areas inhabited by Poles were to be handed over to Germany, there was a note to the Czechoslovak government calling for “the immediate conclusion of an agreement under which Polish territory should be undeniably occupied by Polish troops; This should be followed by an agreement on referendums in districts where a large share of the Polish population is high. [75]. The solution to the Czechoslovak problem, which has just been found, is, in my opinion, only the prelude to a broader settlement in which the whole of Europe can find peace. This morning I had another conversation with the German Chancellor, Mr Hitler, and here is the newspaper that bears his name, as well as mine.

Some of you may have heard what`s in it, but I just want to read it to you: “. We regard the agreement signed last night and the Anglo-German naval agreement as a symbol of the desire of our two peoples never to go to war with each other again. [96] The Czechoslovaks wanted to perish in battle and mobilized the army. A quarter of a million disgruntled Czechs gathered in front of Prague`s Rudolfinum, where senior communist official Klement Gottwald spoke to them. France has also begun to mobilize its troops in the event of imminent war. President Beneš refused to start a war without the Western powers. Although Hitler demanded that Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland before September 28, otherwise war would break out, the Munich Accords were not signed until September 30 at 1:30 a.m. .m .m, even though they were dated September 29. The signatories were Hitler, the British Chamberlain, French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier and Mussolini in Italy. The Sudetenland would join the Empire on October 10 and the fate of the other territories would be decided by an international commission. Britain and France marched on gas and told Czechoslovakia that they had to fight Germany alone or act in accordance with the Munich accords. One aspect of the enormous turmoil of the past two weeks must affect anyone thinking about its history.

In the three most powerful states of Central and Eastern Europe, people were not allowed to know what was being said and done outside. .

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